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Organizational Climate: Factors, Measurement, Impact

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organizational climate

Employees have a certain perception or prenotion about the environment and atmosphere of a company. This anticipation is known as organizational climate. It can affect an employee’s impression of a company as well as overall satisfaction. 

Improving organizational climate is one of the top ways of improving employee retention and keeping your employees content. The better your employees feel at work, the better they will perform. 

In fact, Oxford University’s Saïd Business School claims, happy workers are 13% more productive. Hence, it’s important to understand the various determinants of climate.

In this blog, we discuss the same along with how to measure it and its direct impact on employees. We also talk about how climate differs from culture and the factors that affect it.

Meaning of Organizational Climate

Organizational climate is how employees perceive the official and unofficial rules, practices, procedures, and everyday habits within a company. It reflects the lasting impressions that employees have about the workplace atmosphere and overall culture.

The climate of an organization can either be positive where employees are happy and motivated or it can be negative, with employees feeling stressed out and discontent. The productivity of an organization rises proportionally with its climate. 

The climate can also be represented by the look and feel of your workplace, how employees treat visitors and new employees, and personal experiences. It is also directly dependent on organizational culture and the shared behaviors of employees.

Definition of Organizational Climate

The definition of Organizational Climate as stated by Hellriegel and Slocum (1974) is,

“a set of attributes which can be perceived about a particular organization and/or its subsystems, and that may be induced from the way that organization and/or its subsystems deal with their members and environment”.

Organizational climate can be demarcated as a set of attributes specific to a specific organization that may be induced from the mode that organization deals with its members and its environment. For the individual members within the organization, climate takes the form of a set of attitudes and experiences which label the organization in terms of both static characteristics (such as degree of autonomy) and behavior outcome and outcome- outcome possibilities.


As per Forehand and Gilmer, climate includes a set of features that characterize an organization, distinguish it from others in a relatively enduring manner, and shape the behaviors of individuals within it.

5 Factors Affecting Organizational Climate

factors effecting organizational climate


Here are the key 5 factors that affect the formation of an organization’s climate:

1. Organizational Context

Organizational context incorporates the mission, vision, goals, objections, and functions of a company. They form the backbone, shaping the purpose and direction of the organization. 

The functions it performs are the daily heartbeat, pulsating life into the workplace. These elements collectively influence the organizational climate, setting the tone for motivation, alignment, and a shared sense of purpose among employees.

2. Structure

Think of organizational structure as the skeleton of a company. Its size determines how nimble or robust the organization is. Likewise, the degree of centralization reflects the power dynamics—whether decisions are top-down or collaborative. 

Operating procedures are the muscles that determine how smoothly and efficiently the organization moves. A well-structured organization fosters clarity and transparency, positively impacting the work atmosphere.

3. Leadership Process

Leadership is the guiding force that influences the mood and morale within an organization. Leadership styles set the emotional tone: whether it’s supportive, visionary, or collaborative. 

Communication is another important sub-factor here. It ensures that everyone is on the same page. Furthermore, decision-making processes reflect the organization’s adaptability and inclusivity. A healthy leadership process creates an atmosphere of trust, open communication, and a shared commitment to success.

4. Physical Environment

The physical environment encompasses 

  • Employee safety: Employee safety is the baseline for well-being, a crucial factor in fostering a positive climate.
  • Environmental stresses: Environmental stresses, be they noise or cramped spaces, can impact productivity and job satisfaction.
  • Physical space characteristics: The characteristics of the physical space, from layout to amenities, contribute to the overall comfort and satisfaction of employees, influencing the organizational climate.

5. Value System and Norms

Organizational values and norms are like the guiding principles that shape workplace culture. They set the tone for how people interact, collaborate, and contribute. When values align with employee beliefs, it fosters a sense of belonging and purpose. 

In HR terms, cultivating a culture where values resonate and norms promote collaboration is the secret sauce for a positive and thriving organizational climate.

8 Types of Organizational Climate

1. People-Oriented

A people-oriented climate centers on appreciation and respect for employees, fostering a positive atmosphere through superior-subordinate connections and incentives. 

Pro: Boosts morale and employee empowerment.

Con: May face challenges if not aligned with organizational goals.

2. Rule-Oriented

A rule-oriented organizational climate places a strong emphasis on adherence to established norms and traditions. Clear guidelines provide structure, ensuring safety and predictability. 

Pro: Promotes order and safety.

Con: This may stifle creativity and adaptability, potentially hindering innovation.

3. Innovation-Oriented

An innovation-oriented organizational climate encourages adaptation and survival through a creative and entrepreneurial mindset. It values risk-taking and proactiveness. 

Pro: Fosters creativity and adaptability.

Con: High levels of uncertainty may make some employees uncomfortable or anxious.

4. Result-Oriented

A result-oriented climate focuses on achieving organizational objectives and creating motivation among employees. The alignment of long, medium, and short-term goals contributes to a purpose-driven workplace. 

Pro: Enhances organizational performance.

Con: Overemphasis on goals may lead to stress or burnout among employees.

Apart from these, there are four more types of organizational climate that depend on the dimensions of sociability and solidarity:

5. Networked Climate

In a networked climate, members view each other as friends and family, maintaining close relationships and willingly sharing information. This culture promotes collaboration and mutual assistance.

Pro: Members act as friends and family, with close contacts and information sharing.

Con: Reluctance to criticize poor performance due to strong interpersonal relationships.

6. Communal Climate

A communal climate is characterized by a strong sense of belonging among its members, who are both inspired and guided by charismatic leaders. This culture emphasizes task-driven activities where the collective group works together towards shared goals.

Pro: Fosters a strong sense of belonging and task-driven focus.

Con: Risk of excessive influence from leaders, potential lack of member vocalization.

7. Fragmented Climate

In a fragmented climate, the sense of belonging and identification with the organization is weak. Individuals prioritize their own interests and task work commitment over collective goals, resulting in a lack of cooperation.

Pro: Emphasizes individualism and task-work commitment.

Con: Weak sense of belonging and potential lack of cooperation among members.

8. Mercenary Climate

A mercenary climate is highly goal-oriented, focusing on strict objectives and efficient task completion. Individuals in this culture prioritize goals and objectivity.

Pro: Laser-focused on strict goals and objective achievement.

Con: Risk of inhumane treatment for those with poor performance.

7 Characteristics of Organizational Climate

organizational climate characteristics

1. Perception

Organizational climate is strongly tied to how individuals perceive the organization. It acts like a pair of glasses, giving insights into how people view and feel about the internal environment.

2. Abstract Concept

A key aspect of organizational climate is that it’s abstract and hard to put into concrete terms. This makes it tricky to measure since it relies on subjective viewpoints.

3. Distinctive Identity Factor

Organizational climate plays a crucial role in giving the organization its own unique identity. It’s not just about what the organization does but how it’s perceived, setting it apart from others.

4. Long-Term Effort

Creating a positive organizational climate doesn’t happen overnight. It’s a long-term effort that requires consistent actions and commitment over time.

5. Structure 

Structure influences the organizational climate by reflecting how employees perceive constraints and freedom in their roles. It sets the formality level in the workplace, shaping the overall atmosphere.

6. Trust 

Trust is a key factor in determining organizational climate. It affects how comfortable employees feel communicating openly, especially on sensitive matters. This characteristic establishes a foundation of trust and transparency in the workplace.

7. Innovation 

Innovation plays a vital role in shaping organizational climate. It’s not just about new ideas but the perception that change and creativity are actively encouraged. The willingness to take risks and explore new areas contributes to a climate that values and promotes innovation.

How to Measure Organizational Climate?

Here are four proven ways to measure organizational climate:

1. Conducting Employee Surveys and Feedback Mechanisms

Surveys are the most efficient way of directly measuring an organization’s climate. Employee surveys can be highly useful in predicting employee behavior and turnover.

Surveys help in understanding the pulse of the organization and identifying strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement. This feedback loop contributes to building a healthy and transparent organizational culture.

An internal survey at Facebook stated that simply asking employees how long they intend to stay is more than twice as accurate at predicting their future turnover than machine-learning forecasts in predictive analytics.

2. Administering Interviews and Focus Groups

The HR team can conduct individual interviews to delve into employees’ views on leadership, collaboration, and work environment. 

Simultaneously, focus groups bring together staff to discuss shared experiences regarding innovation, teamwork, and adaptability. This combined approach yields diverse insights, guiding strategic improvements in the organizational climate. 

Both methods, through individual and group interactions, offer valuable qualitative data, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the organizational climate.

3. Observing and Analyzing Behavior

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a specific form of behavior analysis that focuses on applying behavior principles to individual, social, and cultural contexts.

By observing employees’ behaviors, organizations can gain insights into various aspects of their climate. For instance, behavior analysts may use their understanding of learning and behavior to address issues such as enhancing teamwork, internal communication, and overall organizational culture.

4. Benchmarking and Conducting Comparative Analysis

Benchmarking involves comparing an organization’s climate against industry standards or best practices, providing a baseline for improvement. Comparative analysis assesses an organization’s climate in relation to similar entities, highlighting areas of strength and areas that need attention.

Impact of Organizational Climate on Employees

A positive organizational climate contributes to heightened motivation, commitment, and focused perceptions, positively impacting employee performance. Let’s understand this more in detail using a study by BMC Health Services Research

1. Higher levels of organizational commitment

The organizational commitment of employees was found to be significantly influenced by the organizational climate, as indicated by statistical findings.

The results of the study indicate that when employees have high organizational climate scores, their organizational commitment scores are also high concurrently.

2. Positive impact on organizational performance

According to the study, the organizational climate is shown to have a strong predictive influence, accounting for a significant 45% in determining perceived organizational performance. 

In simpler terms, when employees perceive a positive organizational climate, they are more likely to view their organization’s performance more favorably compared to competitors.

3. Acts as a constraint system

The organizational climate can act as a system of constraints, both positively and negatively. It does so by communicating to employees what behaviors will be acknowledged, penalized, or overlooked. 

This influences behavior through different levels of rewards and punishments. This constraint system particularly impacts individuals who are most aligned with the values assigned to various behavioral outcomes.

4. Behaves as a catalyst for performance

Organizational climate act like catalysts, affecting how people behave. These catalysts influence a person’s motivation, specifically their arousal level. The level of arousal then directly impacts how active and, consequently, how well someone performs.

5. Organizational assessment

Factors within an organization can influence how people behave by assessing themselves and others. This assessment involves considering both physical and psychological aspects, and it has a notable impact on employee behavior. 

6. Facilitating Perceptions for Influence on Behavior:

Organizational factors play a role in shaping behavior by assisting individuals in forming their perception of the organization. This perception, in turn, affects behavior. 

Therefore, a positive organizational climate is crucial for increased employee satisfaction, improved human relations, and enhanced productivity, as illustrated in the accompanying figure.

Difference between Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate

AspectOrganizational CultureOrganizational Climate
ComponentsValues, beliefs, myths, traditions, normsMeasurable aspects of the work environment
NatureDifficult to measure and articulate, intangibleMeasurable with relative precision, tangible and observable
OriginsEvolves over time, influenced by organizational historyEvolves in the minds of employees influenced by culture
Leadership InfluenceMore challenging for leaders to directly controlStrongly influenced by day-to-day leadership style
EnduranceEndures over the long term, resistant to quick changesMore responsive to changes and interventions
MeasurementDifficult to measure and manage directlyCan be measured more precisely, providing specific data for management

How to Improve Organizational Climate?

As an HR or a leader, it is your duty to keep the climate of your organization healthy and positive. It’s not possible to achieve it in a day but continued effort will bring results. Here are 7 simple ways you can use to improve organizational climate:

  1. Assess Management Team Honestly: Evaluate your management team openly before implementing significant changes.
  2. Get Employee Input: Enhance the workplace and maintain approachability by seeking input from employees.
  3. Foster Team Spirit: Cultivate team spirit and camaraderie through celebrations and small gestures.
  4. Set a Positive Example: Adjust your own attitude positively to set an example for the team.
  5. Enhance Work Environment: Improve the work environment by considering factors like lighting and decor.
  6. Recognize Top Performers: Elevate morale and motivation by recognizing and appreciating top performers.
  7. Adapt Rules if Necessary: Improve the overall atmosphere by adapting or relaxing rigid rules as needed.

Moving Ahead: Tech’s Impact on Organizational Climate

Looking forward, technology becomes a game-changer in creating a positive organizational climate. Communication tools and virtual platforms bridge gaps, fostering transparent and inclusive workspaces. Tech-driven analytics offer insights into employee sentiments, guiding proactive strategies for a content workplace.

In the era of remote work, technology ensures flexibility and balance, crucial for a positive climate. Remote collaboration tools and flexible scheduling contribute to a supportive environment. 

The synergy of HR strategies and tech innovations will define workplaces that are agile, connected, and resilient. As we progress, the marriage of tech and HR will shape a future where employees thrive, driving collective success.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is organizational climate?

Organizational climate is how employees perceive the workplace environment, reflecting their feelings, attitudes, and impressions about the organization.

2. How is organizational climate different from organizational culture?

Organizational climate differs from organizational culture in that climate is about the current atmosphere, while culture is the deeper, long-term set of values and beliefs.

3. What are the signs of a toxic organizational climate?

Signs of a toxic organizational climate include 

  • High turnover
  • Lack of communication
  • Constant stress
  • A feeling of distrust among employees.

4. How can leadership influence organizational climate?

Leadership influences organizational climate through their style, communication, and decision-making, setting the emotional tone and overall work atmosphere.

5. What methods are used to measure organizational climate?

Methods to measure organizational climate include employee surveys, interviews, focus groups, observing behavior, and benchmarking against industry standards.

6. What are the consequences of a negative organizational climate?

The consequences of a negative organizational climate are 

  • Decreased morale
  • Higher turnover
  • Lower productivity
  • A negative impact on employee well-being

7. What are the benefits of a positive organizational climate?

The benefits of a positive organizational climate include 

  • Increased employee satisfaction
  • Higher productivity
  • Better teamwork
  • A more attractive workplace for talent

8. What strategies can organizations use to improve their climate?

Strategies to improve organizational climate involve 

  • Honest assessments of leadership
  • Seeking employee input
  • Fostering team spirit
  • Recognizing top performers
  • Adapting rules for a healthier atmosphere

Table of Contents

    Meet the author

    Keka Editorial Team

    A bunch of inspired, creative and ambitious youngsters- that’s Keka’s editorial team for you. We have a thirst to learn new subjects and curate diverse pieces for our readers. Our deep understanding and knowledge of Human Resources has enabled us to answer almost every question pertaining to this department. If not seen finding ways to simplify the HR world, they can be found striking conversations with anyone and everyone , petting dogs, obsessing over gadgets, or baking cakes.


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