# Forecasting

Forecasting is a technique in which historical data has been used as input to estimate predictions in determining the trends.

Why do businesses use forecasting?

Forecasting helps businesses allocate budgets or anticipate expenses for the upcoming period.

What kind of data is the preferred forecast?

The forecast result is inferred based on historical data.

What is the difference between forecasting and prediction?

Forecasting is done based on historical data and can be concluded using data, whereas predictions come from instinct, gut feel or guess

What are the essential things to be considered while forecasting?

Understand the purpose of the forecast. How will the model be used? What are the system components for which the estimates will be made?

## What are the applications of forecasting?

It has a wide range of fields where estimates of future conditions can help a business make specific measures or take preventive actions.

### The mathematical approach to forecasting

• Average approach
• Naive approach
• Drift method
• Seasonal naive approach

### What are the ways of forecasting?

• Time Series methods
• Relational methods
• Judgemental methods
• Artificial Intelligence Methods
• Geometric Extrapolation with error prediction

### Time Series methods

• Moving average
• Weighted moving average
• Exponential smoothing
• Autoregressive moving average (ARMA)
• Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)
• Extrapolation
• Linear prediction
• Trend estimation (predicting the variable as a linear or polynomial function of time)
• Growth curve (statistics)
• Recurrent neural network

## What are the other methods to approach forecasting mathematically?

• Granger causality
• Simulation
• Prediction market
• Probabilistic forecasting and Ensemble forecasting

## What are the limitations of forecasting?

Unseen barriers can make the decision unreliable, there can be certain factors that have excluded and make the model quite unreliable. Factors that are affected by social behavior such as the stock market, Stock market is a place where no forecasting can effectively state the next steps.

## What is a forecasting bias?

Forecasting bias or optimism bias causes someone to believe that they are most unlikely to experience a failure, It can also be called comparative optimism.

## What are the features of forecasting?

• Involves future events
• Based on past and present events
• Uses forecasting techniques

## State the process of forecasting

• Develop the basis of forecasting
• Estimate the future operations of the business
• Regulate the forecast
• Review the process

## What are the sources of data for predicting?

• Primary resources, also called first-hand information, are considered to be the most reliable and trustworthy sort of information. The forecaster himself collects the data via interviews, questionnaires and focus groups.
• Secondary resources supply information that has been collected and published by other entities, such as Industry reports. This information has been compiled and analyzed to make the process easier.

## How to enable forecasts?

The manager and forecaster should have the decent technical ability to bring the best in a forecasting platform. Here are three vital queries to choose the best forecasting technique for a particular problem:

1. Determine the process of figuring out the technique and the requirement
2. Explore the system’s components and simplify the relationship between them, The forecaster should develop the model to extract facts and logic of the given situation.
3. Determine the past’s reflection on the future.