Python Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers

Table of Contents

    Python is an elevated-level and general-purpose programming language first released in 1991 and created by Guido van Rossum. It stresses code readability and simplicity which makes it an ideal choice for beginners and expert programmers. Few of the key features and characteristics are: 

    • Readable and simple syntax. 
    • Versatile so utilized for all types of programming tasks. 
    • Comprehensive standard library. 
    • Vibrant ecosystem comprises of third-party libraries and frameworks. 
    • Supports object-oriented programming (OOP). 
    • Cross-platform compatibility. 
    • Large and active community of programmers and developers. 

    In short, due to the numerous features and choices the site offers, it becomes the ideal choice for developers and programmers alike. 

    Python basic questions 

    1. What is Python? 

    The intent of the interviewer is to understand the candidate’s knowledge of the programming language and how they define it.

    Sample response: Python is a high-level, interactive programming language known for its simplicity and readability. It offers a versatile environment for developing applications in web development, data analysis, and machine learning. Its robust ecosystem helps programmers and developers build efficient solutions. It is a popular choice due to its community support and ability to handle both large-scale and small-scale projects. 

    2. What are the key features of Python? 

    The intent of the interviewer is to assess the key features of Python and to explain it to others in a summarized way.

    Sample response: Its hey features are readable syntax, a standard library, and an ecosystem of third-party libraries. It supports object-oriented programming and offers cross-platform compatibility. In addition, strong community support is an additional feature. 

    3. What is PEP 8? 

    The intent of the interviewer is to assess the candidate’s knowledge of coding standards and the official style guide of Python.

    Sample response: PEP 8 is the official style guide for Python code, providing guidelines on code layout, naming conventions, and best practices. It ensures consistency, readability, and maintainability in projects which makes collaboration easy in projects. 

    4. How is memory managed in Python? 

    The intent of the interviewer is to understand the extent of the candidate’s knowledge of Python’s memory management.

    Sample response: Python’s memory is managed through garbage collection, where objects that are no longer referenced are freed. Its memory handles memory allocation and deallocation, that lets developers write code explicitly. 

    5. Explain the difference between a list and a tuple. 

    The intent of the interviewer is to assess the candidate’s understanding of the difference between and the use cases of list and a tuple.

    Sample response: Lists and tuple are sequence data types. The main difference between the two is while tuples represent immutable lists represent mutable. Lists are used when data needs to be modified and tuples are used for fixed data. 
     
    6. What is the difference between shallow copy and deep copy in Python? 

    The intent is to gauge the candidate’s understanding of shallow copy and deep copy and their ability to explain them in a brief way.

    Sample response: A shallow copy creates a new object in reference to existing data, so any changes in either affects both. In contrast, deep copy creates an independent copy with its own set of data, and they are unaffected by changes in either. 
     
    7. How do you handle exceptions in Python? 

    The intent is to assess the candidate’s understanding of exception handling and detecting errors efficiently.

    Sample response: Exceptions are handled using try-except block. The potential code is placed in ‘try’ block and exceptions if caught are handled in ‘except’ block. This helps in managing errors, logging them, and taking action to prevent program crashes. 

    8. Explain the concept of generators in Python. 

    The intent is to test the extent of the candidate’s understanding of generators and how they explain it in a summarized manner.

    Sample response: Generators in Python are functions that can be used for efficient iteration over a large dataset. They use “yield” keyword to generate value one-at-a time instead of storing them, making them useful for infinite or exceptionally large sets of data. 

    9. What is the purpose of “self” keyword in Python? 

    The intent behind this is to gain the candidate’s perspective on the keyword and its usage in their daily life.

    Sample response: The “self” keyword in Python refers to instance of object being accessed within a class method, allowing class to access and modify its own attributes. Additionally, it serves as a reference point to enable encapsulation, and differentiate among instance and local variables. 

    10. What is the difference between a module and a package in Python? 

    The intent is to test the candidate’s knowledge of modules and packages in Python and whether they understand the difference between both the terms.

    Sample response: A module is a single file containing a code, on the other hand, package is a form of directory containing various modules. Modules are used to organize codes while package organizes related modules for better management and reusability. 

    Python viva questions

    11. How do you comment on a single line and multiple lines in Python? 

    The intent is to understand the candidate’s knowledge of Python syntax and their documentation procedure.

    Sample response: In Python, you can comment using # for single line and “”” for multiple line comments. These comments improve readability and provide context to reviewers.  

    12. Explain the concept of indentation in Python. 

    The intent behind the question is to test the candidate’s knowledge of Python’s indentation and its impact on language syntax and readability.

    Sample response: Indentation defines the blocks of code. It replaces the need for braces or keywords and is crucial to improve code readability.
     
    13. How do you handle exceptions in Python? Give an example. 

    The intent behind the question is to assess the ability of the candidate in handling exceptions and give a practical example to highlight their experience in handling one.

    Sample response: In Python, exceptions are handles using try-except blocks. Within they try block the code is placed, and in the except block the underlying logic is written. [Give an example to this.] 

    14. What is the purpose of the if…else statement in Python? Provide an example. 

    The intent is to analyze the candidate’s understanding of conditional statements in Python and explain if…else statements.

    Sample response: The is…else statement allows to execute code base on the given conditions and control the flow of the program. So, with this the execution of true conditions is different from the false conditions. 

    15. How do you define a function in Python? Give an example. 

    The question’s intent is to test the candidate’s understanding of various functions in Python along with providing a clear and concise explanation of them.

    Sample response: To define a function in Python, use “def” keyword followed by the name of the function and parentheses that includes the parameters. 

    16. What is a module in Python? How do you import a module? 

    The intent behind this is to identify the candidate’s ability to import a module and the extent of their understanding of a module.

    Sample response: In Python, a module is typically a type of file containing Python definitions, statements, and functions, also allowing to organize and reuse a code. If you want to import a module, use ‘import’ keyword followed by module name.  

    17. Explain the concept of class and an object in Python. 

    The intent is to understand the candidate’s knowledge of object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts and concepts of class and an object.

    Sample response: A class is typically a blueprint or template that defines the properties and behaviors of objects. Objects are instances of a class that represents individual entities with their unique characteristics and behaviors. They encapsulate data and functions within a single entity and enhance readability and modularity. 

    18. How do you create a file and write data into it using Python? 

    The intent is to assess the knowledge of candidates on file handling and their ability to write data into file using the programming language.

    Sample response: To create a file and write data into it, use the ‘open ()’ function with file name and mode parameter and for writing use the ‘w’ mode. And then close the file to prevent data loss. 
     
    19. How do you read data from a file in Python? 

    The interviewer’s intent is to assess the candidate’s understanding of file handling and reading data from a file.

    Sample response: To read data from a file use ‘open ()’ function to open it in desired mode. Then use methods like ‘read ()’or ‘readlines ()’ to retrieve file’s content. 
     
    20. Explain the concept of inheritance in Python. 

    The intent behind the question is to assess the candidate’s understanding of the concept of inheritance.

    Sample response: Inheritance helps a class to inherit attributes and methods from another class. It promotes code reuse and supports hierarchical organization of class. Create a subclass that inherits properties of the superclass and helps in reuse and extension of existing code. 

    Python programming questions

    21. What is the use of range () function in Python?

    The intent is to gain the candidate’s perception of range function and its purpose in programming.

    Sample response: The range () function generates a sequence of numbers within a specified range and is used in loops to iterate over a sequence of values. 

    22. How do you write a conditional statement (if-else) in Python? 

    The intent is to assess the candidate’s ability to understand conditional statements in Python and writing code using if-else conditions.

    Sample response: In Python the following conditional statement is written using: 
    if condition: 
        # Code to execute if condition is True 
    else: 
        # Code to execute if condition is False 
     
    23. How do you handle exceptions in Python? 

    The intent of the interviewer is to assess the candidate’s expertise in handling exceptions in Python.

    Sample response: In Python exceptions are handled using try-except blocks. The code with a possibility of exception is placed in the try block and the exceptions are handled in the except block. 

    24. How do you read from and write to a file in Python? 

    The intent behind this question is to understand the ability to handle files and then read and write to files.

    Sample response: To read a file in Python, use open () functions with the ‘r’ mode, then use methods like read () or readline () to extract the contents of the file. And use ‘w’ mode and write () method to add content. Finally, close the file using the close () method.

    25. What is object-oriented programming (OOP) in Python? 

    The intent of the interviewer is to assess the candidate’s understanding of OOP programming.

    Sample response: Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm where code is organized around objects representing real-world entities and allows encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. OOP makes it easier to develop and manage complex applications. 

    26. What is a class and how do you create an object in Python? 

    The intent of the interviewer is to assess the candidate’s knowledge of classes and OOP in Python.

    Sample response: A class is a blueprint for object creation in Python and defines the properties and behaviors of the objects. To create an object in Python, instantiate the class by calling the constructor using the class name and then follow it with a parenthesis. 

    27. What is inheritance in Python? How does it work? 

    The intent behind the question is to test the candidate’s understanding of inheritance concept in Python and its usage in the programming language.

    Sample response: Inheritance in Python is when a class inherits the attributes and methods of another class. It allows for code reusage and creation of hierarchical relationships among classes. This also allows for code organization and modularity. 

    28. What are modules in Python? How do you import and use them? 

    The intent of the interviewer is to assess the candidate’s ability to understand the utilization of the code and modules in Python.

    Sample response: Modules are files containing Python code that can be imported and used in other Python programs and help in organizing and reusing code. To import a mode use ‘import’ keyword followed by module name. 

    29. How do you work with dates and time in Python? 

    The intent behind this question is to assess the candidate’s capability in handling dates, time and libraries and functions in Python.

    Sample response: In Python we use the datetime module, which provides classes date and time to handle various operations. It also helps in parsing, formatting, arithmetic calculations, and comparisons. 

    30. What are some built-in libraries and functions in Python? 

    The intent behind the question is to assess the candidate’s understanding of built-in Python functions and libraries and their familiarity with the capabilities and tools of the programming language.

    Sample response: Python provides a range of built-in functions and offers standard libraries like math, datetime and random that enhances Python’s functionality and flexibility. 

    Tips to prepare for Python interview

    Here are some of the tips to prepare for python interview:

    • Revisit the Python basics, like the concepts of data types, control flow, functions, and OOP concepts.
    • Daily practice coding by solving coding exercises and challenges.
    • Familiarize yourself with all the built-in functions of the programming language.
    • Learn about all the popular libraries like NumPy and Pandas.
    • Prepare for the technical round by covering algorithms, OOP, and more.
    • Review topics like exception Shandling, file handling, and frameworks.
    • Keep yourself updated with Python’s latest trends and developments.
    • Gain experience by building personal or open-source projects.
    • Practice a mock interview to improve skills.

    Red flags you cannot miss

    • The candidate lacks a basic understanding of the fundamental concepts of Python.
    • Unfamiliarity with the essential libraries, frameworks, and features.
    • Poor or unstructured coding skills.
    • Difficulty in analyzing and solving logical programs.
    • Inefficient in bug-testing and bug-fixing.
    • Lack of knowledge in optimizing codes and performance.
    • Inadequate knowledge of the latest trends and updates in the dynamic field of Python.

    A Python interview assesses a candidate’s knowledge of Python syntax, data structures, object-oriented programming, and relevant libraries/frameworks. The interviewer evaluates problem-solving skills, code readability, adherence to best practices, testing/debugging abilities, and domain understanding. This helps determine the candidate’s proficiency in Python and suitability for the role.

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