Top 30 Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Table of Contents

    In manual testing, testers perform test cases without using automated tools. Verifying a software application’s performance, usability, and functioning requires human involvement. Manual testing plays a significant part in the software development life cycle by guaranteeing the quality and dependability of the product before its deployment. In addition to automated testing methods, testers can find flaws, confirm user needs, give real-time feedback, and improve the overall user experience. 

     

    Given below are some of the most important manual testing interview questions. 

    Manual Testing Interview Questions for Freshers

    Given below are some of the manual testing interview questions for freshers

     

    1. What is manual testing, and how does it differ from automated testing? 

    The purpose behind asking the question is to assess the candidate’s understanding of fundamental concepts in software testing. It helps the interviewer evaluate the candidate’s knowledge of testing methodologies, their ability to distinguish between manual and automated testing, and their awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. This question also aims to gauge the candidate’s overall comprehension of the software testing landscape and their ability to communicate technical concepts clearly. 

    Sample Answer: While automated testing entails utilizing tools to perform tests automatically, manual testing requires carrying out tests manually to find software flaws.

     

    2. What are the key phases of the software testing life cycle (STLC)? 

    The motive behind asking about the key phases of the software testing life cycle (STLC) is to assess the candidate’s understanding of the structured process involved in software testing. By inquiring about these phases, the interviewer aims to gauge the applicant’s familiarity with the systematic approach to testing software, evaluating their ability to comprehend and articulate the sequential stages without direct prompting. This question serves to discern the depth of the candidate’s knowledge in software testing methodologies and their capacity to communicate essential concepts related to the testing life cycle. 

    Sample Answer: Requirement analysis, test planning, test case development, test environment setup, test execution, and test closure are the major stages of the software testing life cycle (STLC).

     

    3. Can you explain the difference between smoke testing and regression testing? 

    By inquiring about these specific testing methodologies, the interviewer or HR aims to gauge the applicant’s proficiency in distinguishing between initial validation and comprehensive reevaluation processes in the software development lifecycle. This question seeks to evaluate the candidate’s ability to articulate the unique purposes and applications of smoke testing and regression testing in a passive context. 

    Sample Answer: Regression testing ensures that modifications or improvements to the program do not introduce new flaws. Smoke testing is a preliminary test to see if the software’s fundamental features are operating.

     

    4. What is the purpose of test cases, and how do you write effective test cases? 

    This question aims to evaluate the candidate’s ability to distinguish between two distinct testing methodologies and determine their suitability for different stages of the software development lifecycle. Additionally, it provides insight into the candidate’s knowledge of quality assurance practices and their capacity to apply testing strategies appropriately in various scenarios.

    Sample Answer: Test cases are utilized to ensure that the program satisfies the required specifications. Key components of well-written test cases are clear objectives, a mix of positive and negative scenarios, and test coverage.

     

    5. What is the difference between functional testing and non-functional testing?

    The motive of the interviewer/HR in posing the question regarding the dissimilarity between functional testing and non-functional testing is to assess the candidate’s comprehension of fundamental concepts in software testing. By inquiring about this disparity, the interviewer aims to evaluate the candidate’s capacity to differentiate between the two testing types and discern their respective purposes within the software development lifecycle. 

    Sample Answer: While non-functional testing focuses on performance, security, usability, and compatibility, functional testing determines whether the product performs as intended.

     

    6. How do you prioritize test cases when time is limited? 

    The purpose behind asking the question is to assess the candidate’s ability to make effective decisions and manage their time efficiently in a testing environment. The question aims to evaluate the candidate’s understanding of the importance of prioritization in testing, their problem-solving skills and capacity to balance quality assurance efforts within time constraints.  

    Sample Answer: When you’re short on time, you can prioritize test cases by considering criticality, business effect, risk assessment, and usage frequency.

     

    7. Can you explain the concept of boundary value analysis and give an example? 

    This question aims to evaluate the candidate’s ability to articulate the concept and provide a practical example, demonstrating their proficiency in applying testing techniques to identify potential issues at the boundaries of input ranges. The intent is to gauge the candidate’s expertise and practical application of testing methodologies related to boundary values. 

    Sample Answer: Using the boundary values of input ranges, test cases are constructed using the test design approach known as boundary value analysis. For instance, input at the lower and higher bounds of acceptable ranges can be used to test a system.

     

    8. What is the difference between validation and verification in software testing? 

    This question helps the HR/interviewer gauge the candidate’s knowledge of key terms and concepts related to quality assurance and testing processes. Additionally, it helps evaluate the candidate’s ability to articulate and communicate technical information, which is crucial in roles related to software development and testing. 

    Sample Answer: Verification entails determining whether the software complies with design and development standards, whereas validation is reviewing the software during or after the development process to see if it meets stated requirements.

     

    9. What is the importance of a test plan, and what components should it include? 

    The motivation behind posing the question about the importance of a test plan and its essential components lies in assessing the candidate’s understanding and knowledge of software testing processes. The interviewer or HR seeks to gauge the candidate’s ability to articulate the significance of a test plan in ensuring effective software testing. 

    Sample Answer: To describe the testing strategy, goals, objectives, scope, resources, and timetable, a test plan is essential. It should have elements like a test execution schedule, test objectives, a test environment, and test deliverables.

     

    10. How do you track and report defects during the testing process? 

    This question helps the HR/interviewer evaluate the candidate’s knowledge and experience in identifying, documenting, and communicating defects within a testing environment. It also gauges the candidate’s familiarity with defect tracking tools and processes, highlighting their ability to contribute effectively to the software testing and quality assurance activities within the organization. 

    Sample Answer: A defect tracking system or tool tracks and reports defects. Details like the defect description, how to recreate it, severity, priority, and status are frequently included in defect reports.

    Manual Testing Interview Questions for Experienced

     

    Given below are some of the manual testing interview questions for experienced candidates

     

    11. Can you explain your process for test case design and execution? 

    Asking about the process for test case design and execution is important because it allows individuals to gain insights into how a particular project or system is being tested for quality assurance. Understanding this process is crucial for identifying potential weaknesses, ensuring thorough testing coverage, and ultimately delivering a more robust and reliable product. 

    Sample Answer: I use a process that includes requirements analysis, test scenario identification, test case creation, test case execution, and defect reporting for test case design and execution.

     

    12. How do you approach and handle regression testing in your projects? 

    Regression testing ensures that new code changes do not negatively impact existing functionalities. Understanding a candidate’s methodology in planning, executing, and automating regression tests provides insights into their attention to detail, problem-solving skills, and proficiency with testing tools. This question helps evaluate their ability to maintain the overall integrity and stability of a software system throughout its development lifecycle. 

    Sample Answer: When performing regression testing, I choose the most important test cases, rank them according to risk and impact, and then compile a regression test suite. To ensure effective execution, I automate repetitive test cases.

     

    13. Can you describe the software defects you commonly encounter and how you classify them? 

    A candidate’s ability to articulate common software defects and their classification demonstrates their familiarity with quality assurance processes, which is essential in maintaining and enhancing the reliability of software products. This question allows the interviewer to gauge the candidate’s expertise in identifying and addressing potential issues in the development lifecycle. 

    Sample Answer: Functional flaws, usability concerns, performance hiccups, security vulnerabilities, and compatibility issues are a few common sorts of software errors. They are categorized according to their seriousness and systemic effect.

     

    14. How do you prioritize and manage your testing activities when faced with tight deadlines? 

    This question provides valuable insights into their organizational and time-management skills and problem-solving abilities in high-pressure situations. The response to this question helps assess the candidate’s capacity to balance quality and efficiency in testing processes, demonstrating their adaptability and resilience in challenging work environments. 

    Sample Answer: When there are short deadlines, I rank testing tasks according to their importance to the business, potential impact, and level of risk. I work closely with stakeholders to control expectations and reach thoughtful conclusions.

     

    15. Have you used test management tools or defect-tracking systems in previous projects? If yes, which ones? 

    This question helps the HR/interviewer gauge the candidate’s familiarity with industry-standard tools, their ability to adapt to different testing environments, and their overall expertise in managing tests and tracking defects throughout the software development lifecycle. It provides insights into the candidate’s practical skills and experience in using specific tools, which is valuable information for evaluating their suitability for the role. 

    Sample Answer: Yes, I have organized test cases, tracked defects, and produced reports using test management tools like TestRail and defect tracking systems like JIRA in previous projects.

     

    16. Can you explain the concept of test coverage and how you ensure adequate coverage in your testing efforts? 

    This question also helps evaluate the candidate’s practical approach to testing, including the tools and techniques they employ to guarantee sufficient coverage and the effectiveness of their testing efforts. 

    Sample Answer: Test coverage describes how thoroughly software requirements are tested. To ensure appropriate coverage, I undertake risk-based testing, equivalence partitioning, analysis of boundary value, and risk-based testing.

     

    17. Have you ever encountered a situation where the development team did not consider a bug you reported important? How did you handle it? 

    Asking this question during an interview is crucial as it helps assess the candidate’s ability to navigate challenges and communicate effectively within a team. Understanding how they handle situations where their input is undervalued sheds light on their resilience, problem-solving skills, and collaborative approach. It also provides insights into their communication style and whether they can diplomatically address differences in opinion within a professional context. 

    Sample Answer: In cases when a reported bug was deemed unimportant by the development team, I offer more proof, draw attention to the possible impact, and work with them to reach a consensus and find a solution.

     

    18. What strategies do you employ for testing in different environments, such as web browsers, operating systems, or mobile devices? 

    The question aims to evaluate the candidate’s ability to adapt testing methodologies to various environments, ensuring the reliability and compatibility of software across different technologies. It provides insights into the candidate’s experience, skills, and approach to quality assurance in a multi-platform and varied technological landscape. 

    Sample Answer: I use a mix of manual testing and test automation to test in various scenarios. I keep a matrix of compatible browsers, operating systems, and hardware to ensure complete coverage.

     

    19. How do you handle and report test results and defects to project stakeholders? 

    The interviewer or HR asks about how you handle and report test results and defects to project stakeholders to assess your communication and documentation skills in a testing role. They want to understand your ability to effectively convey complex technical information to non-technical stakeholders, ensuring clear and concise reporting. 

    Sample Answer: I manage and communicate test findings and defects to project stakeholders by creating concise and understandable reports that contain details like the status of the test execution, descriptions of the flaws, severity ratings, and recommendations.

     

    20. Have you worked on any automation testing projects? If yes, can you explain how you combined manual and automated testing in your approach? 

    Asking candidates whether they have worked on any automation testing projects is crucial for assessing their practical experience and skills in the field. Understanding how candidates integrate manual and automated testing in their approach provides valuable insights into their testing strategy and adaptability to diverse testing scenarios. 

    Sample Answer: Yes, I have experience working on testing automation projects. I blended manual and automated testing by manually selecting repeatable and stable test cases for automation while concentrating on exploratory testing and edge cases.

    Basic manual testing interview questions

     

    Given below are some of the basic manual testing interview questions

     

    21. What is manual testing, and how does it differ from automated testing? 

    This question aims to evaluate the candidate’s knowledge of the testing process, their ability to distinguish between manual and automated testing, and their awareness of when each approach is appropriate. It also provides insight into the candidate’s familiarity with industry-standard practices in software testing, which is crucial for roles that involve quality assurance or testing responsibilities. 

    Sample Answer: Executing tests manually is known as manual testing, whereas automated testing involves using tools to perform tests automatically, which saves time and effort.

     

    22. What is the difference between functional testing and non-functional testing? 

    Functional testing focuses on verifying if the software functions as intended, while non-functional testing examines aspects like performance, usability, and reliability. A candidate’s ability to distinguish between these two testing types demonstrates their depth of knowledge and suitability for roles requiring proficiency in software testing. 

    Sample Answer: While non-functional testing looks at things like performance, security, and usability, functional testing concentrates on making sure the product satisfies the requirements.

     

    23. What are the key steps involved in the manual testing process? 

    The purpose behind asking the question is to assess the candidate’s understanding of the manual testing process. The interviewer aims to evaluate the candidate’s knowledge of the fundamental steps and procedures involved in manual testing, including their ability to articulate the key stages and activities in a clear and concise manner. This question helps the interviewer gauge the candidate’s expertise in manual testing and their overall familiarity with the testing lifecycle. 

    Sample Answer: Test case development, execution, defect reporting, and test closure procedures, including test summaries and documentation, are crucial manual testing phases.

     

    24. What is a test case? How do you create and execute test cases?

    This line of questioning helps determine if the candidate possesses the necessary skills and knowledge to contribute effectively to the testing phase of software development. It helps the interviewer evaluate the candidate’s ability to articulate the definition of a test case, demonstrate a systematic approach to creating test cases, and explain the process of executing them. 

    Sample Answer: A test case is a group of circumstances and inputs with predetermined results. Following test steps, test cases are conducted after being created by analyzing requirements and constructing scenarios.

     

    25. How do you prioritize test cases when you have limited time for testing? 

    This question aims to gauge your ability to efficiently allocate time and resources to achieve thorough test coverage within limited testing timelines. It also assesses your awareness of the project’s priorities and your ability to make informed choices to ensure the most critical aspects of the software are thoroughly tested. 

    Sample Answer: Prioritising test cases in a time-constrained manner entails putting the most important functionality, business implications, risk assessments, and high-risk areas first.

     

    26. What is the purpose of regression testing, and when is it performed? 

    Regression testing is conducted to ensure that new code changes or updates do not negatively impact existing functionality. The question aims to gauge the candidate’s knowledge of testing methodologies and their awareness of when regression testing should be performed, emphasizing the importance of maintaining overall system integrity during software development and updates. 

    Sample Answer: Regression testing is done to ensure that the program does not acquire new flaws due to upgrades or improvements. Usually, it is carried out following system modifications or updates.

     

    27. How important are boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning in testing? 

    Boundary value analysis helps identify potential errors at the edges or boundaries of input ranges, while equivalence partitioning involves grouping input values to streamline test cases. Proficiency in these techniques demonstrates a candidate’s ability to design effective test cases, identify potential defects, and enhance the overall quality of the testing process. 

    Sample Answer: Testing methods include equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis. Equivalence partitioning divides inputs into equivalent classes to eliminate redundancy and increase efficiency, whereas boundary value analysis verifies input values at boundaries.

     

    28. How do you log defects in a bug-tracking system? What information should be included in a defect report? 

    The question about the information included in a defect report helps evaluate the candidate’s attention to detail and communication skills, as a comprehensive defect report is crucial for efficient issue resolution and collaboration within a development team. 

    Sample Answer: In a bug-tracking system, defects are recorded by giving information such as the defect description, methods to replicate it, predicted and actual outcomes, priority, severity, and pertinent attachments.

     

    29. What is smoke testing, and when is it performed? 

    Smoke testing refers to a preliminary test conducted on a software build to identify major issues or “smoke” before more in-depth testing is performed. Understanding when to perform smoke testing demonstrates the candidate’s grasp of efficient testing methodologies, emphasizing the importance of quickly identifying critical defects in the early stages of development. This question helps gauge the candidate’s practical knowledge and commitment to delivering high-quality software products. 

    Sample Answer: Smoke testing is a rapid preliminary test to see whether the software’s essential features are operational. It is conducted at the start of testing or following builds or releases.

     

    30. How do you ensure proper test coverage in a software application? 

    This question aims to evaluate the candidate’s knowledge of ensuring that all aspects of a software application are thoroughly tested to identify and address potential defects or issues. It also assesses their awareness of different testing techniques and their ability to prioritize and execute tests effectively. 

    Sample Answer: Equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, risk-based testing, mapping test cases to requirements, and maintaining a balance between positive and negative test cases are all methods for guaranteeing test coverage.

    Tips to Prepare for Manual Testing Interview

     

    • Clearly define the skills and experience required for the role. This helps in selecting candidates who match the job profile. 
    • Plan a structured interview process with a mix of technical questions, scenario-based questions, and questions that assess the candidate’s communication and problem-solving skills. 
    • Incorporate real-world testing scenarios into your questions. This helps in evaluating the candidate’s practical knowledge and ability to apply concepts. 
    • Since communication is vital in testing, include questions that evaluate the candidate’s ability to explain complex testing concepts or report defects clearly. 
    • Assess the candidate’s knowledge of various testing methodologies and their ability to choose the right approach for a given project. 
    • Include behavioral questions to understand how candidates have handled challenges or conflicts in their previous roles. 
    • Consider giving candidates a small practical assignment or a testing scenario to assess their problem-solving skills. 
    • Stay updated on the latest trends in manual testing and incorporate relevant questions to ensure the candidate is aware of the evolving landscape. 

    Red Flags

    • Constant rescheduling: Constantly changing the date and time of interviews without good cause shows that you are not respected for your time and that your organization needs to be improved.
    • Disrespecting others: Colleagues that exhibit contempt or derogatory behavior towards one another during interviews may be working in a toxic or siloed environment.
    • Conflicting values: If your values and those of the company are in harmony, it may be easier for you to land your job and feel satisfied.
    • Lack of clarity or consistency in responses: Inadequate communication and lack of openness might indicate vague or inconsistent answers to your queries.
    • Bait and switch: When a job description dramatically changes without enough justification, it shows poor communication and could imply organizational instability.
    • Questions or comments that are inappropriate: If you come across questions or comments that are offensive or illegal, it likely means that the organization has inadequate training, is tolerant of improper conduct, or is biased in some way.
    • Lack of connection: Interviewers with little excitement, interest, or warmth may already have a favorite or need help communicating.
    • Resistance to change: If the organization rejects change even though it wants to improve, it may cause friction and prevent you from making the required changes to your function.
    • An excessive number of interviews or protracted procedures: An unnecessarily drawn-out interview process may indicate indecision, consensus-based decision-making, or an unwillingness to move things forward.
    • Exploding offers: Job offers with tight deadlines put you under undue strain and prevent you from making well-informed choices, which may subsequently cause you to feel regret or discontent.
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